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Bon­gob­ondhu (Friend of Ben­gal) Sheikh Mujibur Rahman

Bon­gob­ondhu (Friend of Ben­gal) Sheikh Mujibur Rah­man was born in a pres­ti­gious Mus­lim fam­ily on 17 March 1920, in the vil­lage Tungi­para of Gopal­ganj dis­trict of Bangladesh. Bon­gob­ondhu spent his child­hood in his vil­lage Tungi­para with his fam­ily. When he was as of 7 years old, he began to going school at Gimadanga pri­mary school.
Sheikh Mujibur Rah­man mar­ried Begum Fazi­latnnesa at 18 years. They became the happy par­ents of two daugh­ters– Sheikh Hasina, and Sheikh Rehana, and three sons were Sheikh Kamal, Sheikh Jamal & Sheikh Russel.

Sheikh Mujibur Rah­man polit­i­cal career was effec­tively started while he was a stu­dent at Gopal­ganj mis­sion­ary school. He led a group of stu­dents to demand that the cracked roof of the school be repaired when Sher-​e-​Bangla A. K. Fazlul Huq, Prime Min­is­ter of undi­vided Ben­gal, came to visit Gopal­ganj Mis­sion­ary School along with Husein Sha­heed Suhrawardy.

Banga­bandhu passed the Entrance (SSC) Exam­i­na­tion in the year 1942 . He then took admis­sion in Cal­cutta Islamia Col­lage as an inter­me­di­ate stu­dent in the Human­i­ties fac­ulty. That same year He got actively involved with the move­ment for the cre­ation of Pakistan.

Sheikh Mujibur Rah­man was elected GS of Islamia Col­lege Stu­dents Union in 1946. Sheikh Mojib obtained Bach­e­lor of Arts (BA) degree from Islamia Col­lege under Cal­cutta Uni­ver­sity in 1947.

Sheikh Mujib took admis­sion in the Law Depart­ment of Dhaka Uni­ver­sity in 1948. He founded the Mus­lim Stu­dents League on 4 January,1948. He rose in spon­ta­neous protest on 23rd Feb­ru­ary when Prime Min­is­ter Khwaja Naz­imud­din in his speech at the Leg­isla­tive Assem­bly declared : “The peo­ple of East Pak­istan will accept Urdu as their state language.”

Khwaja Nazimuddin’s remarks touched off a storm of protest across the coun­try. Sheikh Mujib imme­di­ately plunged into hec­tic activ­i­ties to build a strong move­ment against the Mus­lim League’s pre­med­i­tated, heinous design to make Urdu the only state lan­guage of Pak­istan. Banga­bandhu estab­lished con­tracts with stu­dents and polit­i­cal lead­ers. On 2 March, 1948, a meet­ing of the work­ers of dif­fer­ent polit­i­cal par­ties was held to chart the course of the move­ment against the Mus­lim League on the lan­guage issue. The meet­ing held at Fazlul Huq Hal of Dhaka Uni­ver­sityl approved des­o­la­tion placed by Banga­bandhu to form an All-​Part State League age Action Council.

The Action Coun­cil called for a gen­eral strike on 11 March to reg­is­ter its protest against the con­spir­acy of the Mus­lim League against Bangla lan­guage. On 11 March, Banga­bandhu was arrested along with some col­leagues while the were hold­ing a demon­stra­tion in front of the Sec­re­tariat build­ing of Dhaka. The stu­dent com­mu­nity of the coun­try rose in protest fol­low­ing the arrest of Banga­bandhu S. In the face of the strong stu­dent move­ment the Mus­lim League gov­ern­ment was forced to release Banga­bandhu and other stu­dent lead­ers on 15 march. Fol­low­ing his release, the All-​Party State Lan­guage Action Coun­cil held a pub­lic rally at Dhaka Uni­ver­sity Bat Tala on 16 March 1948. Banga­bandhu presided over the rally, which were soon sets upon by the police.

To protest the police action Banga­bandhu imme­di­ately announced a coun­try­wide stu­dent strike for 17 March. Later, on 19 May, Banga­bandhu led a move­ment in sup­port of the Dhaka Uni­ver­sity Class Four employ­ees strug­gling to redress the injus­tice done to them by their employ­ers. Mujib was arrested again on 11 Sep­tem­ber.
Sheikh Mujib was released from jail on 21 Jan­u­ary, 1949. Banga­bandhu extended his sup­port to a strike called by the Class Four employ­ees of Dhaka Uni­ver­sity to press home their var­i­ous demands. The uni­ver­sity author­i­ties illog­i­cally imposed a fine on him for lead­ing the move­ment of the employ­ees. He rejected the unjust order. Even­tu­ally, the anti-​Muslim League can­di­date Sham­sul Huq won a by-​election in Tan­gail on 26 April, 1949, Mujib was arrested for stag­ing a sit-​in strike before the vice-chancellor’s res­i­dence. When the East Pak­istan Awami Mus­lim League was formed on 23 June, Banga­bandhu was elected its joint sec­re­tary despite his incar­cer­a­tion. He was released in late June. Imme­di­ately after his release, he began orga­niz­ing an agi­ta­tion against the pre­vail­ing food cri­sis. In Sep­tem­ber he was detained for vio­lat­ing Sec­tion 144. Later, how­ever, he was freed.

Banga­bandhu raised the demand for Chief Min­is­ter Nurul Amin’s res­ig­na­tion at a meet­ing of the Awami Mus­lim League in Octo­ber. Imme­di­ately after­ward, he was arrested again alone with Moulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani for lead­ing a del­e­ga­tion to Liaquat Ali Khan. That was towards the end of Octo­ber 1949.

Awami Mus­lim League brought out an anti-​famine pro­ces­sion in Dhaka on the occa­sion of Pakistan’s Prime Min­is­ter Liaquat Ali Khan’s visit to the province on Jan­u­ary 01, 1950. Once again Banga­bandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rah­man was arrested and jailed for two years for lead­ing the demonstration.

Khwaja Naz­imud­din declared that Urdu would be the state lan­guage of Pak­istan on 26 Jan­u­ary 1952. Though still in jail, Banga­bandhu man­aged to play a lead­ing role in orga­niz­ing a protest against this announce­ment. From prison he sent out a call to the State Lan­guage Action Coun­cil to obverse 21 Feb­ru­ary as Demand Day for releas­ing polit­i­cal pris­on­ers and mak­ing Bangla the state lan­guage. Banga­bandhu began a hunger strike on 14 Feb­ru­ary 1952. On 21 Feb­ru­ary the stu­dent com­mu­nity vio­lated Sec­tion 144 and brought out a pro­ces­sion in Dhaka to demand the recog­ni­tion of Bangla as the state lan­guage. Police opened fire, killing in the process Salam, Barkat, Rafique, Jab­bar and Shafiur, who thus became mar­tyrs of the Lan­guage Move­ment. In a state­ment from jail, Banga­bandhu con­demned the police fir­ing and reg­is­tered his strong protest. He was on hunger strike for 13 con­sec­u­tive days. He was moved from Dhaka cen­tral jail to Farid­pur Jail to pre­vent him from mak­ing con­tact with the orga­niz­ers of the move­ment. He was released from jail on 26 Feb­ru­ary, 1952.

On 9 July, 1953 , Mujib was elected gen­eral sec­re­tary of East Pak­istan Awami League at this coun­cil ses­sion. Efforts were made to forge unity among Moulana Bhashani, A.K. Fazlul Huq and Sha­heed Suhrawardy with the objec­tive of tak­ing on the Mus­lim League at the gen­eral elec­tions. To achieve this goal, a spe­cial coun­cil ses­sion of the party was called on 14 Novem­ber, 1953, when a res­o­lu­tion to form the Jukta Front (United Front) was approved.

The first gen­eral elec­tions were held on 10 March, 1954. The United Front won 223 seas out of a total of 237, includ­ing 143 cap­tured by the Awami League. Banga­bandhu swept the Gopal­ganj con­stituency, defeat­ing the pow­er­ful Mus­lim League leader Wahiduz­za­man by a mar­gin of 13,000 votes. On 15 May, Sheikh Mujib was given charge of the min­istry of agri­cul­ture and forests when the new provin­cial gov­ern­ment was formed. On 29 May, the cen­tral gov­ern­ment arbi­trar­ily dis­missed the United Front min­istry. Banga­bandhu was again arrested once he landed at Dhaka air­port after a flight from Karachi on 30 May, 1954. He was freed on 23 December.

Banga­bandhu was elected a mem­ber of the leg­isla­tive assem­bly on 5th June, 1955 . The Awami League held a pub­lic meet­ing at Pal­tan Maidan on 17th June 1955 where it put for­ward a 21-​point pro­gram demand­ing auton­omy for East Pak­istan. On 23rd June the Work­ing Coun­cil of the Awami League decided that this mem­bers would resign from the leg­isla­tive assem­bly if auton­omy was not granted to East Pak­istan.
On 3 Feb­ru­ary, 1956 , Awami League lead­ers, dur­ing a meet­ing with the Chief Min­is­ter, demanded that the sub­ject of provin­cial auton­omy be included in the draft con­sti­tu­tion. On 14 July 1956, the Awami League at a meet­ing adopted a res­o­lu­tion oppos­ing the rep­re­sen­ta­tion of the mil­i­tary in the admin­is­tra­tion. The res­o­lu­tion was moved by Banga­bandhu. On 4 Sep­tem­ber an anti-​famine pro­ces­sion was brought out under the lead­er­ship of Banga­bandhu defy­ing Sec­tion 144. At least three per­sons were killed when police opened fire on the pro­ces­sion in Chawk­bazar area of Dhaka. On 16 Sep­tem­ber, Sheikh Mojibur Rah­man jointed the coali­tion gov­ern­ment, assum­ing he charge of Indus­tries, Com­merce, Labor, Anti-​Corruption and Vil­lage Aid Ministry.

Major Gen­eral Iskan­dar Mirza, & the chief of Pakistan’s army Gen­eral Ayub Khan, imposed mar­tial law on 7 Octo­ber, 1958 and banned pol­i­tics. Banga­bandhu was arrested on 11 Octo­ber 1958. There­after, he was con­tin­u­ously harassed through one false case after another. Released from prison after 14 months, he was arrested again at the jail gate.

The Cen­tral Stu­dents Action Coun­cil was formed on 5 Jan­u­ary, 1969 to press for the accep­tance of the 11-​point demand that included the 6-​point demand of Sheikh Mojib. The coun­cil ini­ti­ated a coun­try­wide stu­dent agi­ta­tion to force the gov­ern­ment to with­draw the Agar­tala con­spir­acy case and release Banga­bandhu. The agi­ta­tion grad­u­ally devel­oped into a mass move­ment. After months of protests, vio­la­tions of Sec­tion 144 and cur­fews, fir­ing by the police and the EPR and a num­ber of casu­al­ties, the move­ment peaked into an unprece­dented mass upsurge that forced Ayub Khan to con­vene a round-​table con­fer­ence of polit­i­cal lead­ers and announce Banga­bandhu release on parole. On 22 Feb­ru­ary 1969, the cen­tral gov­ern­ment bowed to the con­tin­ued mass protests and free Banga­bandhu Sheikh Mojib and the other co-​accused. The con­spir­acy case was with­drawn. The Cen­tral Stu­dent Action Coun­cil arranged a recep­tion in honor of Sheikh Mujibur Rah­man on 23 Feb­ru­ary, 1969 at the race­course (Suhrawardy Uddyan). At this meet­ing of one mil­lion peo­ple, Mujib was pub­licly acclaimed as Banga­bandhu (Friend of Ben­gal). In his speech on the occa­sion, Banga­bandhu pledged his total sup­port to the 11-​point demand of the stu­dent.
Banga­bandhu was re-​elected Pres­i­dent of the Awami League on 6 Jan­u­ary, 1970. The Awami League at a meet­ing of the Work­ing com­mit­tee on 1 April decided to take part in the gen­eral elec­tions sched­uled for later that year. On 7 June, Banga­bandhu addressed a pub­lic meet­ing at the race­course ground and urged the peo­ple to elect his party on the issue of the 6-​point demand. On 17 Octo­ber, Banga­bandhu selected the boat as his party’s elec­tion sym­bol and launched his cam­paign through an elec­tion rally at Dhaka’s Dho­lai Khal. On 28 Octo­ber, he addressed the nation over radio and tele­vi­sion and called upon the peo­ple to elect his party’s can­di­dates to imple­ment the 6-​point demand. When a mighty cyclone storm hit the coastal belt of Bangladesh, killing at lest one mil­lion peo­ple, Banga­bandhu sus­pended his elec­tion cam­paign and rushed to the aid of the help­less peo­ple in the affected areas. He strongly con­demned the Pak­istani rulers indif­fer­ence to the cyclone vic­tims and protested against it. He called on the inter­na­tional com­mu­nity to help the peo­ple affected by the cyclone. In the gen­eral elec­tions held on 7 Decem­ber, the Awami League gained an absolute major­ity. The Awami League secured 167 out of 169 National Assem­bly seats in the then East Pak­istan and gained 305 out of 310 seats in the Provin­cial Assembly.

On 3 Jan­u­ary, 1971 , Banga­bandhu con­ducted the oath of the people’s elected rep­re­sen­ta­tives at a meet­ing at the Race Course ground. The Awami League mem­bers took the oath to frame a con­sti­tu­tion on the basis of the 6-​point demand and pledged to remain loyal to the peo­ple who had elected them. On 5 Jan­u­ary, Zul­fi­quar Ali Bhutto, the leader of the major­ity party, the People’s Part, in the then West Pak­istan, announced his readi­ness to form a coali­tion gov­ern­ment at the cen­tre with the Awami League. Banga­bandhu was cho­sen as the leader of his party’s par­lia­men­tary part at a meet­ing of the National Assem­bly mem­bers elected from his party. On 27 Jan­u­ary, Zul­fi­quar Ali Bhutto arrived in Dhaka for talks with Banga­bandhu. The talks col­lapsed after three days of delib­er­a­tions. In an announce­ment on 13 Feb­ru­ary, Pres­i­dent Yahya Khan sum­moned the National Assem­bly to con­vince in Dhaka on 3 March. On 15 Feb­ru­ary, Bhutto announced that he would boy­cott the ses­sion and demanded that power be handed over to the major­ity par­ties in East Pak­istan and West Pak­istan. In a state­ment on 16 Feb­ru­ary, Banga­bandhu bit­terly crit­i­cized the demand of Bhutto and said, “The demand of Bhutto sahib is totally illog­i­cal. Power has to be handed over to the only major­ity party, the Awami League. The peo­ple of East Ben­gal are now the mas­ters of power.”

On 1 March, Yahya Khan abruptly post­poned the National Assem­bly ses­sion, prompt­ing a storm of protest and through­out Bangladesh. Banga­bandhu called an emer­gency meet­ing of the work­ing com­mit­tee of the Awami League, which called a coun­try­wide har­tal for 3 March. After the har­tal was suc­cess­fully observed, Banga­bandhu called on the Pres­i­dent to imme­di­ately trans­fer power to his party.
On 7 March, Banga­bandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rah­man addressed a mam­moth pub­lic rally at the Race Course ground, where he declared:
He advised the peo­ple to pre­pare them­selves for a guerilla war against the enemy. He asked the peo­ple to start a total non-​cooperation move­ment against the gov­ern­ment of Yahya Khan. There were inef­fec­tual orders from Yahya Khan on the one hand, while the nation, on the other hand, received direc­tives from Banga­bandhu Road 32 res­i­dence. The entire nation car­ried out Banga­bandhu instruc­tions. Ever orga­ni­za­tion, includ­ing gov­ern­ment offices, banks, insur­ance com­pa­nies, schools, col­leges, mills and fac­to­ries obeyed Banga­bandhu direc­tives. The response of the peo­ple of Bangladesh to Banga­bandhu call was unpar­al­leled in his­tory. It was Banga­bandhu who con­ducted the admin­is­tra­tion of an inde­pen­dent Bangladesh from March 7 to March 25.
On 16 March, Yahya Khan came to Dhaka for talks with Banga­bandhu on the trans­fer of power. Bhutto also came a few days later to Dhaka for talks. The Mujib-​Yahya-​Bhutto talks con­tin­ued until 24 March. Yahya Khan left Dhaka in the evening of 25 March in secrecy. On the night of 25 March, the Pak­istan army cracked down on the inno­cent unarmed Ban­galees. They attacked Dhaka Uni­ver­sity, the Peelkhana Head­quar­ters of the then East Pak­istan Rifles and the Rajarbagh Police Head­quar­ters.
He called upon all sec­tions of peo­ple, includ­ing Ban­galee mil­i­tary and civil­ian per­son­nel, stu­dents, work­ers and peas­ants, to join the resis­tance against the occu­pa­tion Pak­istan army. This mes­sage of Banga­bandhu was imme­di­ately dis­sem­i­nated through­out the coun­try through radio equip­ment under spe­cial arrange­ments. The same night jawans and offi­cers in Chit­tagong, Comilla and Jes­sore can­ton­ments put up resis­tance to the Pak­istan army after receiv­ing this mes­sage. Banga­bandhu dec­la­ra­tion was broad­cast by Chit­tagong Radio sta­tion. The Pak­istan army arrested Banga­bandhu from his Dhan­mondi res­i­dence at 110 A.m. and whisked him away to Dhaka can­ton­ment. On 26 March he was flown to Pak­istan as a pris­oner. The same day, Gen­eral Yahya Khan, in a broad­cast banned the Awami League and called Banga­bandhu a traitor.

On 26 March, M.A Han­nan, an Awami League leader in Chit­tagong, read out Banga­bandhu dec­la­ra­tion of depen­dence over Chit­tagong radio. On 10 April, The Pro­vi­sional Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Gov­ern­ment of Bangladesh was formed with Banga­bandhu as Pres­i­dent.
The rev­o­lu­tion­ary gov­ern­ment took the oath of office on 17 April at the Amrakanan of Baidyanath­tala in Meherpur, which is now known as Mujib­na­gar. Banga­bandhu was elected Pres­i­dent, Syed Nazrul Islam act­ing Pres­i­dent and Tajud­din Ahmed Prime Min­is­ter. The Lib­er­a­tion War ended on 16 Decem­ber when the Pak­istani occu­pa­tion forces sur­ren­dered at the his­toric race­course ground accept­ing defeat in the glo­ri­ous was led by the rev­o­lu­tion­ary gov­ern­ment in exile. Bangladesh were finally free.
Ear­lier, between August and Sep­tem­ber of 1971, the Pak­istani junta held a secret trial of Banga­bandhu inside Lyallpur jail in Pak­istan. He was sen­tenced to death. The freedom-​loving peo­ple of the world demanded absolute secu­rity of Banga­bandhu life. Once Bangladesh was lib­er­ated, the Bangladesh gov­ern­ment demanded that Banga­bandhu be released imme­di­ately and uncon­di­tion­ally. A num­ber of coun­tries, includ­ing India and the Soviet Union, and var­i­ous inter­na­tional orga­ni­za­tions urged the release of Banga­bandhu. Pak­istan had no right to hold Banga­bandhu, who was the archi­tect of Bangladesh. In the mean­time, Bangladesh had been rec­og­nized by many coun­tries of the world.

The Pak­istan gov­ern­ment freed Banga­bandhu on 8 Jan­u­ary 1972. Banga­bandhu was seen off at Rawalpindi by Zul­fi­quar Ali Bhutto, by now Pakistan’s pres­i­dent the same day Banga­bandhu left for Lon­don en route to Dhaka. In Lon­don, British Prime Min­is­ter Edward Heath met him. On his way back home from Lon­don Banga­bandhu had a stop-​over in New Delhi, where he was received by Indian Pres­i­dent V. V. Giri and Prime Min­is­ter Indira Gandhi.

A mem­o­rable recep­tion was accorded to Banga­bandhu when the Father of the Nation reached Dhaka on 10 Jan­u­ary. From the air­port he drove straight to the Race­course Ground where he made a tear­ful address before the coun­try. On 12 Jan­u­ary, Banga­bandhu became Bangladesh’s Prime Min­is­ter. On 6 Feb­ru­ary he trav­eled to India at the invi­ta­tion of the Indian gov­ern­ment. After twenty-​four years the Dhaka Uni­ver­sity author­i­ties rescinded his expul­sion order and accorded him the University’s life membership.

On 1 March he went to the Soviet union on an offi­cial visit. The allied Indian army left Dhaka on 17 March at the request of Banga­bandhu. On 1 May he announced a raise in the salary of class three and four employ­ees of the gov­ern­ment. On 30 July Banga­bandhu under­went a gall blad­der oper­a­tion in Lon­don. From there he went to Geneva. On 10 Octo­ber the World Peace Coun­cil con­ferred the Julio Curie award on him. On 4 Novem­ber, Banga­bandhu announced that the first gen­eral elec­tion in Bangladesh would be held on 7 March, 1973. On 15 Decem­ber, Banga­bandhu gov­ern­ment announced the pro­vi­sion of accord­ing state awards to the free­dom fight­ers. On the first anniver­sary of lib­er­a­tion the con­sti­tu­tion of the People’s Repub­lic of Bangladesh was framed.

The People’s Repub­lic of Bangladesh was accorded mem­ber­ship of the United Nations. On 24 September,1974 Banga­bandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rah­man addressed the UN Gen­eral Assem­bly in Bengali.

On 25 Jan­u­ary, 1975, the coun­try switched over to the pres­i­den­tial sys­tem of gov­er­nance and Banga­bandhu took over as Pres­i­dent of the repub­lic. On 24 Feb­ru­ary, Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League, com­pris­ing all the polit­i­cal par­ties of the coun­try, was launched. On 25 Feb­ru­ary, Banga­bandhu called upon all polit­i­cal par­ties and lead­ers to join this national party. He felt the need for mak­ing Bangladesh a self-​reliant nation by reduc­ing depen­dence on for­eign aid. So he over­hauled the eco­nomic poli­cies to achieve the goal of self-​reliance, He launched the Sec­ond Rev­o­lu­tion to make inde­pen­dence mean­ing­ful and ensure food, cloth­ing, shel­ter, medicare, edu­ca­tion and work to the peo­ple. The objec­tives of the rev­o­lu­tion were: elim­i­na­tion of cor­rup­tion, boost­ing pro­duc­tion in mills, fac­to­ries and fields, pop­u­la­tion con­trol and estab­lish­ment of national unity.

Banga­bandhu received an unprece­dented response to his call to achieve eco­nomic free­dom by unit­ing the entire nation. The econ­omy started pick­ing up rapidly within a short time. Pro­duc­tion increased. Smug­gling stopped. The prices of essen­tials came down to within the pur­chas­ing capac­ity of the com­mon man. Imbued with new hope, the peo­ple untidily marched for­ward to extend the ben­e­fits of inde­pen­dence to ever doorstep. But that con­di­tion did not last long.

In the pre-​dawn hours of 15 August, the noblest and the great­est of Ben­galees in a thou­sand years, Banga­bandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rah­man, the archi­tect of Bangladesh and the Father of the Nation, was assas­si­nated by a hand­ful of ambi­tious and treach­er­ous mil­i­tary offi­cers. On that day, Banga­bandhu wife, a noble woman, Begum Fazi­latun­nessa; his eldest son, free­dom fighter Sheikh Kamal; sec­ond son Lt. Sheikh Jamal; youngest son Sheikh Rus­sel; tow daughters-​in-​law Sul­tana kamal and Rosy kamal; Banga­bandhu brother Sheikh Naser; brother-​in-​law and agri­cul­ture min­is­ter Abdur Rab Ser­ni­a­bat and his daugher baby Ser­ni­a­bat; Arif Ser­ni­a­bat, grand son Sukanto Abdul­lah and nephew Shahid Ser­ni­a­bat Banga­bandhu nephew, youth leader and jour­nal­ist Sheikh Fazlul Huq Moni and his preg­nant wife Arzoo Moni; Banga­bandhu secu­rity offi­cer Brig. Jamil and a 14-​year-​old boy Rin­too were killed. In all the killers slaugh­tered 16 mem­bers and rel­a­tives of Banga­bandhu fam­ily.
Mar­tial law was imposed in the coun­try after the killing of Sheikh Mujibur Rah­man. Democ­racy was done away with and basic rights were snatched away. Thus began the pol­i­tics of killing, coups and con­spir­acy. The people’s rights to food and vote were taken away.

There is inter­na­tional pro­vi­sion to hold trial of killers to pro­tect human rights in the world. But unfor­tu­nately in Bangladesh, a law was enacted under a mar­tial law ordi­nance exempt­ing the self-​confessed killers of Banga­bandhu from any trial. The indem­nity Ordi­nance was repealed by par­lia­ment only after the Awami League led by Banga­bandhu daugh­ter Sheikh Hasina returned to power in 1996.
August 15, 1975, is the black­est day in Bangladesh national life. The nation observes this day as National Mourn­ing Day.